Minsk, 13.09.2018 — Master class for students and political scientists
- Hybrid War and Social Media Technologies
Professor, Doctor of Political Sciences, Head of the Information Spetsnaz Association PANARIN IGOR NIKOLAEVICH
Hybrid war — what is it ?
- Hybrid war is a combination of military-political, political-diplomatic, financial-economic, information-psychological and information-technical methods , as well as technologies for color revolutions, terrorism and extremism, special services, special forces, special operations and public structures diplomacy, carried out under a single plan by state authorities, military-political blocs or TNCs.
- The aims of the hybrid war are the complete or partial disintegration of the state, a qualitative change in its internal or foreign policy, the replacement of state leadership by loyal regimes, the establishment of external ideological and financial-economic control over the country, its chaos and subordination to dictate by other states or TNCs.
The Terminology and Doctrines of the Information War
- A. Dalles (CIA) — 1967 — the first mention of “information war”
- Thomas Rona — 1976, Shen Wei Guang (China) — 1985
- The first document is the US Defense Ministry Directive T 3600.1 of 21.12. 1992 — “Information war”.
- Development — Doctrine of Information Operations of the US High Command of the US Armed Forces of 1998, introduces the concept of defensive and offensive information operations (2006 update — operations on the Internet)
- The first international conference “Information war” — 1998, (Linz, Austria — representatives of 43 countries participated)
- The Strategic Communications Concept of the USA — 2010. A set of measures for targeted communication impact on the target audience of other countries (both hostile, allied and neutral).
- 2000 - The Doctrine of Information Security of Russia (FAPSI-1997)
- 2016 — The Doctrine of Information Security of Russia (new edition)
The Terminology and Doctrines of the Hybrid War
- Major-General Alexander Svechin
- Lieutenant-General Andrei Snesarev
- Colonel of the Russian General Staff Yevgeny Messner — in exile
- Marshal of the USSR Ogarkov — Operation DUNAI (August 1968 — Czechoslovakia)
- 2005 — The term “hybrid war” appeared in American military literature more than 10 years ago. In the United States in 2005, American General James Mattis, now head of the Pentagon (nicknamed “Mad Dog”), and Colonel Frank Hoffman published the landmark article “The Future of Warfare: The Rise of the Hybrid Wars,” in which they added to the military doctrine of the 1990s years of General Charles Krulak on the three blocks of war the fourth block. The three blocks of Krulak are the direct conduct of military operations, peacekeeping operations to divide the opposing sides and provide humanitarian assistance. The fourth, a new block of Mattis and Hoffman — psychological and information operations and work with the public.
- In 2010, the concept of NATO introduced the term “hybrid” threats ”
- In the final declaration of the NATO summit held in Scotland in September 2014, for the first time at an official level, it was stated that it was necessary to prepare an alliance for participation in wars of a new type — hybrid wars.
- And in December 2015 at the summit of the foreign ministers of NATO countries a new strategy for conducting a hybrid war was adopted and approved at the NATO summit in Warsaw in July 2016.
Hybrid war (GW) against Russia, the USSR and Eurasia
- The GW methodology originated in the late 19th century. in the British Empire. The FEVRAL coup d’état of 1917 , which led to the overthrow of the autocracy and the collapse of the Russian Empire, can be considered a successful operation of the GW against Russia, carried out by Western Masonry and MI6, through the consolidation of three conspiracies — palace, liberal and treason generals.
- The modern Western strategy of the GW began to develop in the framework of the Cold War (1946–1991), unleashed against the USSR on the initiative of Churchill. The Cold War was GW, (sanctions, ideological sabotage, “agents of influence” in the Soviet elite, drawing arms into the race, etc.). In the collapse of the USSR, the key role was played by the General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee Mikhail Gorbachev, with the support of three accomplices (Yakovlev, Shevardnadze, Kravchuk) . REYKJAVIK 1986 — Gorbachev’s surrender in response to the misinformation of Reagan’s SOI.
- NATO’s GV Strategy against Russia and Eurasia - is aimed at disintegration, creation of chaos using the Partnership for Peace (PfP) program. Creation in all CIS countries of NETWORK Information Centers , youth schools, support to NGOs, media forums. For example, the NATO International Youth School in Gelendzhik, which has been held regularly since 2002 on the basis of the Kuban State University (+ Moscow, St. Petersburg, Veliky Novgorod). Travel of young leaders to NATO headquarters, etc. The most effective strategy for NATO is implemented in Ukraine. In 1994, Ukraine, the first among the CIS countries, joined the PfP program, and in 1997 the first Information and Documentation Center in Europe opened in Kiev .
Hybrid Warfare Technologies
- 1.Terrorism — 54% (from the project “GLADIO” to IGIL).
- 2. Extremism — 54%.
- ” White Helmets” -British misinformers in Syria
- 4.Information-psychological pressure — 67.5% ( Mi-6 = Skripal).
- 5. Military-political pressure — 72%.
- 6.Financial and economic pressure — 67.5% (sanctions)
- 7. Hacker attacks -63%.
- 8. Violation of the functioning of critical infrastructure-40.5%.
- 9. “Color revolutions” — 72%.
- FB: Bulk-2011 (82% -Both), Mustafa Nayem 2013 -100%
- 10. Illegal and illegal migration — 36%.
- 11. Narcotrafic-40.5%.
- 12. Use of Social Networks — 63%.
Operation of British intelligence MI6 “SCRIPAL”: Information weapons are more dangerous than nuclear weapons
- Virtual Poisoning S. Skripal — an incident that occurred on March 4, 2018 . in Salisbury (Great Britain) with a traitor and his 33-year-old daughter Julia, a Russian citizen who came from Moscow to visit her father.
- March 14, 2018 . Theresa May officially accused Russia of trying to kill Skripal and his daughter. May announced that in response to the poisoning, bilateral contacts with Russia will be suspended at a high level and that 23 Russian diplomats will be expelled from Great Britain
- On March 15, leaders of the United States, Britain, France and Germany issued a joint statement condemning the poisoning of Skripal and his daughter and accusing Moscow of organizing a chemical attack. In the statement, the attack was called “an encroachment on British sovereignty” and “a clear violation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and international law”.
- On March 16, the Investigative Committee of Russia opened a criminal case under Article 105.2 clause “e” of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation (attempted murder in a generally dangerous manner) in connection with the attempted murder of a Russian citizen Yulia Skripal
- March 21 — briefing for foreign ambassadors on the situation with Skripal — was superbly led by the Director of the Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia Vladimir Ermakov
- April 3 - Head of the British laboratory “Porton Down” G. Eytkenhead said that he can not confirm that the nerve gas that was poisoned by Skripal and his daughter was produced in Russia. As he concluded, the laboratory did not determine its origin, but provided scientific information to the British government, which then used a number of other sources to draw conclusions.
- April 4 — SVR head S. Naryshkin at the ISIS-2018 announced the provocation of the British special services (ambassador 2 Apr)
- September 5 — A new stage of the Strategic anti-Russian British Hybrid War operation. Two Russians suspected of attempting the Violins are members of the GRU. With such a statement, absolutely unproven, the British Prime Minister Theresa May made a speech.
Theory of Information Confrontation
(doctoral thesis of Professor Igor Panarin on May 7, 1997)
- Two types of information confrontation (struggle):
- 1. information and technical
- At the information and technical confrontation, the main objects of influence and protection are information and technical systems (data transmission systems (SPD), information security systems (SIS), etc.
- At information-psychological confrontation the main objects of influence and protection are:
- 1. political psychology and the population of opposing sides;
- 2. system of formation of public consciousness
- 3.System of formation of public opinion,
- 4 Decision making system.
- Information confrontation includes three components.
- The first is Strategic analysis.
- The second is the Information Impact.
- The third is the Information Counteraction.
Social media — the alignment of forces
The total domination of the West (data as of August 26, 2018)
- FB 1.Gasdep USA — 1 893 811 subscribers of the Russian Federation / USA — 1 to 6
- 2.MID of Russia — 371 814
- 3.MID UK — 224 723
- 4.MID of Belarus — 2 239
- TWITTER 1.Goldep USA — 5. 08 million subscribers of the Russian Federation / USA — 1 to 5
- 2.MID United Kingdom — 874 thousand.
- 3.MID of Russia — 1.19 million.
- 4.MID of Belarus — 11,7 thousand.
- TITTER of global media RF / US — 1 to 21
- 1. CNN (hot news) — 54.1 million
- 2.VVS — (hot news) — 38.1 million
- 3. RT - 2 , 66 million (in English)
- RF Ministry of Defense / USA — Twitter 1 to 32 ( 174 thousand and 5.7 million) , FB — 1 to 7.6
Russia’s only breakthrough in //www.youtube.com /
- Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation / USA — 2/1
- US - subscribers of 76 thousand
- Russia — 130 thousand subscribers
- Number of views of Russia / USA — 10/1
- Russia — 140 million
- United States -14 million
- Russia — the largest views of commercials
- 2015 — Massed impact with high-precision weapons on the objects of IGIL in Syria from the water area of the Caspian Sea — 7.1 million
- 2015 Air strikes against the objects of the terrorist group IGIL — 5.2 million
- 2015 Massed attack by long-range aviation aircraft on infrastructure facilities of IGIL in Syria — 4 million • 2015 — Group launch of cruise missiles Caliber by Rostov-on-Don submarine on targets of terrorists in Syria — 3.7 million
The total influence of the West in Russian social media (Medialogiya prepared the rating of the most cited media for 2017).
Top 8 most cited radio stations in social media
No. Radio station Hyperlinks in social media
1 Radio Liberty (svoboda.org) — 4,936,252
2 Echo of Moscow (echo.msk.ru) — 2 039 733
3 Voice of America # Russian service (golos-ameriki.ru) — 794 769
4 Business FM (bfm.ru) — 328 014
5 Says Moscow (govoritmoskva.ru) — 309,493
6 Kommersant-FM (kommersant.ru/fm) — 219 147
7 Vesti FM (radiovesti.ru) — 51 483
8 Radio 1 (radio1.news) — 25,191
Strong influence of the West in Russian social media (Medialogiya prepared the rating of the most cited media for 2017)
Top 8 most cited Internet resources in social media
№ Internet resource Hyperlinks in social media
1 Meduza.io (Riga, Latvia) - 6,975,272
2 Rbc.ru — 5,870,500
3 Lenta.ru — 4 393 217
4 Life.ru - 3 681 338
5 Gazeta.ru — 3 326 125
6 Bbc.com/russian (United Kingdom) - 2,998,364
7 Znak.com — 2 653 906
8 Navalny.com — 2 412 732
MEDUSA — NATO’s shock information tool in social media
- Created on October 20, 2014 . in Riga, a month and a half after the creation in Riga of NATO’s Strategic Communications Center. The work of the Center involves 7 NATO countries — Estonia, Latvia, Germany, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, Great Britain.
- FB — 334 thousand subscribers
- VK — 557 thousand subscribers
- Twitter — 1.18 million
- According to Medialogy, following the results of 2017, MEDUSA is the most quoted online publication in Russian social media. • Hypothesis = MEDUSA is an analog of the special intelligence unit of British intelligence MI6 “White Helmets” operating in Syria and prepared several information provocations related to the alleged use of chemical weapons.
Digital Diplomacy in the USA
- Digital diplomacy (Digital Diplomacy) is the use of the Internet and modern information and communication technologies (ICT) for the realization of diplomatic and related foreign policy tasks. Also denoted by the terms “Net Diplomacy” and “Public Diplomacy Web 2.0.”
- 1. Digital propaganda.
- First of all, the Internet makes it possible for the State Department to bring its position directly to a multi-million audience abroad, mostly young people, at minimal costs. To this end, the agency has created an extensive network of sites designed for external consumption (information, language, discussion) and official accounts in popular social media (Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, Flickr, Instagram, Tumblr, Pinterest, Google). Support for accounts in social media is mainly handled by the mentioned Office for Digital Interaction, but special working groups are also created to work with the target audience in various departments of the State Department.
- 2. Creation of special software and hardware.
- The State Department paid for the development of computer programs that allow loyal activists to bypass restrictions and control by foreign governments on national communication channels.
- 3 . Stimulation of protest moods with the help of social media .
- In spring 2011, in Tunisia and Egypt, with the help of the Internet and mobile communications, youth groups were mobilized for mass performances, and the information circulating in the network served as a catalyst for the growth of protest sentiments. Social networks, first of all, were used by the internal opposition to coordinate activities and recruitment of supporters, but it is also known that 70% of the messages in Twitter (tweets), referring, for example, to the “revolution” in Egypt, were located with IP addresses, located outside the country. The latter confirms the version of external information interference in the course of the “Arab Spring”, the technical possibility of which is only the United States. In June 2011, speaking in London, H. Clinton’s adviser on innovation A. Ross told the audience that the importance of the Internet in undermining authoritarian regimes in the Arab East was decisive.
- American social networks also played a key role in inciting opposition supporters to actions of civil disobedience in Turkey in June-July 2013. According to the measurements of the Turkish company eBrandValue, which conducts monitoring in the national segment of the Internet, the ratio of Twitter subscribers who called on to join demonstrators in Taksim Square in Istanbul , and those who spoke in support of the current government R. Erdogan, was 68 thousand to 800 . To manipulate political sentiments and to automatically replicate the information sent, false accounts were widely used.
- 4. Training of Internet activists
- Digital diplomacy, as a way of influencing the population of other states via the Internet, is mainly focused on two target groups — active youth and opposition groups (dissidents, journalists, human rights defenders, etc.).In 2008, the US government held the First Conference in New York, which brought together young bloggers and users and established a permanent organization called the Alliance for Youth Movements, whose goal is to use the activity of young people in the network to change the socio- political situation in foreign countries. In 2009, a conference of the Union was held in Mexico City, and in 2010 — in London, etc. In the fall of 2010, the State Department put forward a so-called the Civil Society 2.0 initiative. (Civil Society 2.0) to improve the effectiveness of NGOs and opposition groups abroad with the help of new digital technologies. Within its framework, several programs are implemented, the most famous among which was the project TechCamp (Technological Camps). It is administered by the Diplomatic Innovation Division at the Department of Internet Diplomacy of the State Department. According to the TechCamp program, since 2010, dozens of technology camps have been conducted in more than 30 countries around the world. They were attended by representatives of about 2000 NGOs, media and government agencies from more than 100 countries. The camp is a one- or two-day seminar, which invites from 40 to 200 foreign activists (mostly opposition) to listen to the course of lectures of Western IT specialists of special services and solve their current problems with their help.
Who opposes Medusa, Radio Liberty, Voice of America
- RT (Russian version of the site)
- FB -1 276 thousand subscribers
- Twitter — 873 thousand subscribers (in Russian)
- VK — 1 207 thousand subscribers
- RIA NEWS
- FB -1 646 thousand subscribers (TASS — 531 thousand, Interfax-19)
- Twitter — 2 890 thousand subscribers (TASS — 436 thousand, Interfax-532)
- VK — 1 207 thousand subscribers (TASS — 602 thousand, Interfax -35)
- Radio “SATELLITE”
- FB — 68 thousand subscribers Voice of America Russian service 586 thousand.
- Twitter — 4,5 thousand subscribers Voice of America Russian service 191 thousand.
- VK — 49 thousand subscribers of VC — 19 thousand.
- BUT === ECHO OF MOSCOW
- FB — 284 thousand subscribers
- Twitter — 1 250 thousand subscribers
- VK — 130 thousand subscribers
The experience of China: “The Golden Shield”, it is the “Great Chinese Firewall”
- The Golden Shield project is an Internet filtering system that blocks access to resources banned by the Communist Party from the external Internet. Throughout the world, the “Golden Shield” is also known as the “Great Chinese Firewall” (The Great Firewall of China). Censorship does not apply to the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. The development of the project was started in 1998 (ShenWai Guang), and in 2003 it was put into operation throughout the country. The project includes such subsystems as a security management system (治安 管理 信息 系统), an information system on offenses (刑事 案件 信息 系统), an output and input control system (出入境 管理 信息 系统), an information monitoring system (监管 员 信息 系统), Traffic Management System (交通 管理 信息 系统).
- Chinese Internet censorship is not as simple as it seems at first glance. Analysis of content filtering in social networks has shown that its goal is not total eradication of any political or public criticism, but prevention of its growth into political speech or movement, including virtual one. The Golden Shield uses the following filtering methods:
- IP Blocking
- Filtering DNS requests and redirecting them
- Blocking Internet addresses ( URLs )
- Filtering in the Packet Forwarding Phase
- Blocking of VPN connections
List of known services and sites blocked in China
- Social networks
- Twitter, Facebook, Google+, Google Hangouts, Google Blogspot, WordPress.com, Line, KakaoTalk, TalkBox, some Tumblr, FC2 , SoundCloud, Hootsuite, Adultfriendfinder, Ustream, Twitpic
- Media and information sites
- New York Times, New York Times Chinese, Bloomberg, Bloomberg Businessweek, BBC Chinese, Chosun Chinese, WSJ , WSJ Chinese, Flipboard, Google News, YouTube, Vimeo, Dailymotion, LiveLeak, Break, Crackle, some articles Wikipedia, Wikipedia, Wikileaks
- Google Search Engines , DuckDuckGo, Baidu Japan, Baidu Brazil, Yahoo Hong Kong, Yahoo Taiwan
- Application Services
- Microsoft OneDrive, Dropbox, Slideshare, iStockPhoto, Google Drive, Google Docs, Gmail, Google Translate, Google Calendar, Google Groups, Google Keep
- Other online services
- Flickr, Google Play, Google Picasa, Feedburner, Bit.ly, Archive.org, Pastebin, Change.org, 4Shared, The Pirate Bay, OpenVPN
Goals and objectives of the Information Spetsnaz Association
- 1.Association “Information Spetsnaz” is designed to develop activities and information policy strategy in the interests of realizing the goals of the UN, establishing business contacts, exchanging information, conducting expert and situational analysis.
- The goals of the UN , as enshrined in its Charter, are the maintenance of international peace and security, the prevention and elimination of threats to peace and the suppression of acts of aggression, the settlement or settlement by international means of peaceful settlement of international disputes, the development of friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples;international cooperation in economic, social, cultural and humanitarian fields, the promotion and development of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion.
- Main goals
- A). Counteraction to the use of information technologies for propaganda of the ideology of terrorism, • B). Neutralization of information and psychological impact aimed at eroding traditional spiritual and moral values, • C).Improving the effectiveness of prevention of offenses committed using information technology and counteracting such violations, • E). Effective counteraction to the use of information technologies for military and political purposes that are contrary to international law.
Information Charter of the United Nations
Project of the Association “Information Spetsnaz”
- Considering the importance of the information space for the realization of the goals of the United Nations (hereinafter referred to as the UN), taking into account the resolution of the UN General Assembly A / RES / 65/41 of December 8, 2010, “Advances in the field of information and communications in the context of international security” Have agreed as follows:
- 1.The purpose of this Charter is to counteract the use of information technologies for the violation of international peace and security, the creation of an international information space, which is characterized by peace, cooperation and harmony.
- 2. As the main threats in the international information space, leading to the violation of international peace and security, the following are considered:
- 1) use of information technologies and means for carrying out hostile acts and acts of aggression, including using global media and social media;
- 2) actions in the international information space with the aim of undermining the military-political, financial-economic and social systems of another state, external negative information-psychological impact on the population, including using global media and social media;
- 3) use of the international information space by state and non-state structures, organizations, groups and individuals for terrorist and other criminal purposes;
- 4) the cross-border distribution of misinformation and so-called “fake” information, which is contrary to the principles and norms of international law, as well as national laws of the states;
- 5) use of global media and social media to disseminate information that incites interethnic, interracial and sectarian enmity, materials, images or any other representation of ideas or theories that promote, incite or incite to hatred, discrimination or violence against any person or group of individuals, if, as a pretext, factors based on race, skin color, national or ethnic origin, and religion are used for this;
- 6) manipulation of information flows in the information space of other states, disinformation and concealment of information with the purpose of distorting the psychological and spiritual environment of society, the erosion of traditional cultural, spiritual, moral, ethical and aesthetic values.
- 3.Activity of each UN member state and global media in the international information space should be based on five basic principles:
- 1. Dialogue of civilizations.
- 2. The work of peoples.
- 3.Good things.
- 4. Spiritual sovereignty.
- 5.Dostoinstvo personality and people.
- 4. States Parties to the United Nations resolve conflicts in the international information space, primarily through negotiation, or other peaceful means of their choice in such a way that international peace and security are not endangered.
- 5. In order to counteract the use of the international information space for terrorist purposes, the UN member states:
- 1) take measures to counteract the use of the international information space for terrorist purposes and recognize for this the need for joint, decisive action;
- 2) will seek to develop common approaches to stop the functioning of global media and Internet resources that promote terrorist activities.
- 6. Each state party to this Charter undertakes not to help, not to encourage and counteract the actions of international information terrorism, including misinformation campaigns, using global media and social media.
- 7. The participating States of this Charter undertake to cooperate in the field of information incidents by reporting them and clarifying them to the special Center for Strategic Analysis to Combat Information Terrorism under the UN Security Council.
“Information incident” means the unintended impact of the state on the information environment of the society of the state party to this Charter, which has led to negative consequences.